jQuery Mobile 1.0 was released on Wednesday, with all its ambitious goals intact.
From the official announcement:
To reach the broadest possible audience, we decided from the start to make the framework work on every popular mobile, tablet, e-reader and even desktop platforms by embracing HTML5 and responsive design techniques.
The developers of the Mobile version seem to have understood jQuery's success and built on it well:
[W]e set out to make this framework easy for developers to get up and running fast, with a minimal learning curve. Less technical folks can configure the framework with just HTML markup, but we maintain the full power of jQuery and a robust event and plugin system under the hood for developers who want to deeply extend the framework. By using tools like PhoneGap, jQuery Mobile code can be transformed into apps to be distributed through all popular app stores. A rich ecosystem of developer tools and frameworks make jQuery Mobile even more powerful, offering everything from MVC frameworks to Dreamweaver integration
Most modern platforms are supported fully, and the jQuery Mobile team made sure that even older devices are supported at least in part. They're quite open about this, and have made their results available in very easy-to-use graded listing of supported devices.
Additional features include ThemeRoller for jQuery Mobile, a web-based tool for creating styles quickly (similar to the jQuery UI ThemeRoller).