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PHPUnit vs. Phake cheatsheet

04.17.2013
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Benjamin Eberlei introduced me to Phake with his recent article: it is a Composer-ready PHP library that integrates easily with PHPUnit and provides an independent Test Doubles framework, capable of producing Stubs, Mocks, and Spies. The syntax and object model reminds me of Mockito, the Java Test Double framework from the authors of Growing Object-Oriented Software.

I like tools that do one thing and do it well, and after experimenting with Phake I'm using it on all new code. I am preparing this cheatsheet for my colleagues at Onebip so that they can start using Phake immediately instead of digging through documentation.

Stubs

Stubs are defined as Test Doubles that returned canned values when called, but do not perform assertions and checks of their own. Here is an example with PHPUnit:

$stub = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$stub->expects($this->any())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->with('param')
  ->will($this->returnValue('returned'));

With Phake, the same becomes:

$stub = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
Phake::when($stub)->doSomething('param')->thenReturn('returned');

Stubbing of multiple calls on the same method requires a custom callback in PHPUnit:

$stub = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$stub->expects($this->any())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->will($this->returnCallback(function($param) {
  $toReturn = array(
  'param1' => 'returned1',
  'param2' => 'returned2',
  }));

With Phake, the fluent interface allows to specify multiple return values:

$stub = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
Phake::when($stub)->doSomething('param1')->thenReturn('returned1')
Phake::when($stub)->doSomething('param2')->thenReturn('returned2');

Stubs can also throw exceptions, to simulate a fault in a collaborator at a lower level:

$stub = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$stub->expects($this->any())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->will($this->throwException(new InvalidArgumentException()));

With Phake:

$stub = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
Phake::when($stub)->doSomething('param1')->thenThrow(new InvalidArgumentException());

Mocks

Mocks in PHPUnit requires a specification to be provided before calls to the production code:

$mock = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$mock->expects($this->once())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->with('param');
// act phase

Mocks in Phake can be specified after the interaction:

$mock = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
// act phase
Phake::verify($mock)->doSomething('param');

The benefit of separate verification phases is not only what Benjamin notes: a consistent model of state- and behavior-based testing, where verifications substitute your assertions. Verifying in the test means that exceptions come up and don't have to traverse your code to be seen: at the functional and acceptance level you're avoiding the framework's exceptions to be caught in your catch() clauses.

No interactions with a mock can be verified too:

$mock = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$mock->expects($this->never())
  ->method('doSomething');
// act phase

With Phake:

$mock = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
// act phase
Phake::verifyNoInteractions($mock);

And multiple interactions are the last interesting case:

$mock = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$mock->expects($this->at(0))
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->with('param1');
$mock->expects($this->at(1))
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->with('param2');
// act phase

With Phake:

$mock = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
// act phase
Phake::verify($mock)->doSomething('param1')
Phake::verify($mock)->doSomething('param2');

Phake supports natively PHPUnit matchers, so you don't have to change them while transforming your expectations into verifications:

$mock = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$mock->expects($this->once())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->with($this->isInstanceOf('Iterator');
// act phase

With Phake:

$mock = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
// act phase
Phake::verify($mock)->doSomething($this->isInstanceOf('Iterator'));

Spies

When expectations are complex and you're not ready to create a Constraint object, Spies provide the capturing of the incoming input to a mock and let you work on this variable to assert what you want, conceptually placing your assertions in the mock.

$mock = $this->getMock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
$self = $this;
$mock->expects($this->once())
  ->method('doSomething')
  ->will($this->returnCallback(function($param) use ($self) {
  $self->param = $param;
  }));
// act phase
$self->assertEquals('42', $self->param->answer());

With Phake, you can capture the output too, but after the act phase, consistently with other verifications:

$mock = Phake::mock('Namespace\CollaboratorClass');
// act phase
Phake::verify($mock)->doSomething(Phake::capture($param));
$this->assertEquals('42', $param->answer());

Spies are not to be used frequently - when these verifications are repeated between tests you should extract a Constraint object.

Conclusions

I've pretty much covered all the expectations that I would write every day with PHPUnit or Phake. Phake is a powerful tool that focuses on letting you write and read expectations easily and at the correct phase of your tests; however, don't be blinded by the tool and always simplify the interfaces you are going to introduce Test Doubles for, in the spirit of the Interface Segregation Principle. Also write these protocols and expectations from the point of view of the client class, again in the spirit of another principle, the Dependency Inversion one that leads to the outside-in TDD style proposed by GOOS.

Published at DZone with permission of Giorgio Sironi, author and DZone MVB.

(Note: Opinions expressed in this article and its replies are the opinions of their respective authors and not those of DZone, Inc.)

Comments

Jimmy Brion replied on Sat, 2013/04/27 - 9:31am

Giorgio, Thanks for the Syntax. I want to check this again in this weekend. Tools like this are very helpful save our coding time. I loved this. Keep sharing.. Thanks Again

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