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I am a programmer and architect (the kind that writes code) with a focus on testing and open source; I maintain the PHPUnit_Selenium project. I believe programming is one of the hardest and most beautiful jobs in the world. Giorgio is a DZone MVB and is not an employee of DZone and has posted 638 posts at DZone. You can read more from them at their website. View Full User Profile

What cooking can teach to a software developer

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Let's start with question which does not really matter for software development: how much flour should I put in my pastries?

The complex answer is that it should be just enough for making them stiff and not squashing down, and also increase in size in the oven. If it is not enough, the dough would be liquid and unusable; if it is too much, the products will be hard to bite or accompanied by a strange taste.

The simple answer is instead, there is a quantity in the recipe found on the internet, follow it.

While the subject of this question is oblivious to most of us, its format is typical in the field of software development. It is a short question, which can be answered in a short form by making many assumptions; these assumptions will inevitably stop to work when the context change, or we have to face an even slightly different scenario.

What if my oven does not have a thermostat, since it uses natural gas? Or if I have no butter in my fridge, can I always use margarine instead? For a novice cook, these are every day questions, as for a novice programmer the question of how many tests should he write returns often.

The researches[1] on the topic of knowledge and expertise have come to the following conclusions: novices use recipes. Experts use their judgment, and know that recipes so well that they can change them on the fly and get a better result. The later stages of expertise are characterized, between other things, with the absence of reliance on recipes. And when a recipe is followed blindly or just when it is comfortable to do so, the result is in fact called metaphorically an half-baked solution.

Test-Driven Development

Let's talk about TDD instead of pastries now.

Its recipe (beginner level) is very simple: red, green, refactor. First you write a test, second you make it pass, then you can modify the code before it solidifies.

At an intermediate level however, you can mix the TDD recipe with more advanced ones; for example, you can first write a test at higher level (end-to-end or for a component), then the lower at the unit level for classes or methods.

At the expert level, you'll know that the recipe falls short sometimes. Sometimes you need to write a bit of code first, to build a DSL for your tests (in Selenium-powered tests for example). Only then you can start to go test-driven. And you shouldn't write tests for getters and setters unless they have a particular behavior: they will be indirectly tested and used from coarser grained functional tests. And tests in isolation go hand-in-hand with design practices like Dependency Injection and sometimes Double Dispatch, which make these tests fast and possible at all.

Sometimes you want only smoke tests, not really detailed ones. And what if to make a test pass, a previous one fail? It is acceptable, and you should fix A, or you should try to make B pass in another way? What happens when a test suite cease to work at a random point? How do we debug this?

And if a test passes when run alone, but fails in the middle of the test suite? How do we find which is the one that clashes with it? What is the underlying problem (global state at work)?

I won't go on with other TDD caveats, but the point is clear: recipes can only go to a certain length, while when every specific situation needs an adaptation of the recipe, as well as things that go wrong need a reaction from the developer.

Stop reading, start cooking

In fact, there is no full list for the TDD caveats: to learn them you have to make experience[2] and write more than one thousand tests, of many different types.

Just like a real chef can only learn and improve through cooking, not by reading books or learning recipes. A cookbook does not make you a cook, nor a programmer: books are only proficient if you apply what the author explained you in those 400 pages.

Each time I make my pastries, they are better than the previous time, but the most important thing is that I learn something new (and when I stop learning, I should try to cook something else.) It may be how much they dilate, or how to balance the ingredients better, or to respond to an unforeseen event and avoid a disaster. And each time I write a new test, I learn something new about how to efficienty write test code, and how to design production code. Taste your code, and try to actively improve it instead of going on with the auto pilot.


[1] Andy Hunt, Pragmatic Thinking And Learning
[2] Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success

Published at DZone with permission of Giorgio Sironi, author and DZone MVB.

(Note: Opinions expressed in this article and its replies are the opinions of their respective authors and not those of DZone, Inc.)


Sadsds Dsadsadsa replied on Thu, 2010/12/23 - 5:16am

incredibly long-winded way to say you can't learn everyhting from reading about it but instead you need to do it. An easier example might be to say, you can read about driving, the car manual for example but its not enough until you actually get behind the wheel and start driving.

Matthew Greenfield replied on Thu, 2010/12/23 - 2:54pm

There were several points made in the post. The "long-winded" analogy to cooking helps form the idea in the readers head. The the individual examples gives the reader context. Finally, the interesting scenarios make the read more entertaining and more impacting. I am more likely to remember Giorgio's post than a post that is simply "when you're done reading the manual, get behind the darn wheel."

Manuel Jordan replied on Thu, 2010/12/23 - 6:55pm

Hello Giorgio, do you have some books of your recommendation about TDD?

Giorgio Sironi replied on Fri, 2010/12/24 - 5:34am in response to: Matthew Greenfield

I feel that cooking is more appropriate than driving in this case because of the lack of immediate feedback. When you code, you do not find out that a class is unmaintainable until you have to change it. While driving, you immediately know if you touch a sidewalk or a wall, while in cooking until you taste the finished product you can't say if you are doing well.

Giorgio Sironi replied on Fri, 2010/12/24 - 5:36am in response to: Manuel Jordan

Of course the masterpiece Growing object-oriented software, guided by tests.

Manuel Jordan replied on Sun, 2010/12/26 - 11:53am in response to: Giorgio Sironi

Thank you Giorgio, if you have some books of your recommendation about this, please share it, happy holidays!

Archie Doe replied on Mon, 2014/05/19 - 6:32am

 There are so many parallels that could be drawn between cooking and programing, but in the end it all depends on your skills and the tools you're using to each your goal. Just as you can decid which blender would work best to help you out in the kitchen by simply checking out , you can also look for tools to help you out with your programing skills on the internet.

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